AWG arrayed waveguide grating device is a dispersive passive device and planar waveguide device. It is based on the planar light–wave circuit (PLC) technology and the basic optical principle of linear interference between different wavelengths of light. At the transmission end, AWG arrayed waveguide grating can compound many wavelengths of light into a single optical fiber, At the same time, at the receiving end, these lights can also be separated again.
AWG grating formed by a group of arrayed waveguides with equal length difference, which has the ability of wave division. This means that if each channel uses light with fine microwave length difference, the light of many channels can be carried by a single optical fiber, and only negligible signal crosstalk, so as to improve the propagation efficiency of optical fiber network.