MPO stands for "Multiple-Fiber Push-On/Pull-off", it can replace 12 or 24 LC connectors with only one MPO/MTP connector. An MPO cable is a high-volume data cable that can use one cable to connect with multi cables instead of connecting 12 or 24 separate fiber cables.
MTP is a type of MPO, an enhanced version of MPO, it has better mechanical and optical performance.
There are 3 main differences refer to mechanical design.
MTP has a floating ferrule that can improve physical contact, while an MPO doesn’t have a floating ferrule.
The shape of guide pins is different, MTP adopts an elliptical guide pin to reduce debris that may fall into the guide pinhole, but MPO uses chamfered shaped guide pin that will produce more debris.
MTP is equipped with metal pin clamps, which are much more durable than the plastic pin clamps adopted by MPO. The oval shape of the spring in MTP can maximize the clearance between the spring and the ribbon fiber to prevent damage to fiber.
Regarding the Optical performance, MTP is of lower insertion loss and higher reliability compared with MPO.
MPO is short for "Multiple-Fiber Push-On/Pull-off", which means there are more than 2 fibers in one connector, one MPO connector usually contains 8, 12, 24 fibers.
MTP is the improved version of MPO, so it is comply with MPO with better optical and mechanical performance.